Basic Computer Hardware and Networking Questions and Answers

  1. What is ILO IP ?

ILO IP stands for integrated light out IP. This embedded server Management tool that allows to control and monitor server through remotely.ILO is a Powerful management tool in which ip address assigned on ilo management port that gives console to system administrator to update, configure, monitor, and run services by remotely. that is the hp vender tool.

  1. What is NTDLR ( NT Loader ) – Boot loader for NT OS.

NTDLR is a small piece of software that’s loaded from the volume boot code part of the volume boot record on the system partition, which helps the Windows XP operating System Start.
NTDLR functions as both a boot manager and a system loader. in operating systems released after Windows XP, BOOTMGR and winload.exe together replace NTDLR. if multiple operating systems install and configure that is an option available in NTDLR.

  1. What is Integrated Database Management System ?

It refers to a collection of alphanumerical data and picture data. A Management system for an integrated database is important in making better use of information in the database. The integrated database is organized logically as a set of relations.

  1. what is fiber LIU ?

Fiber Patch Panel (LIU) Light integrated units are extensively used for wired communication networks. The LIU is used for Routing, terminating, and managing optical cable terminations. These light interface units can be wall-mounted or rack-mounted for ease of use.

5. what is domain in server ?

A Domain is a form of a computer network in which all user accounts, computers, printers, and other security principles are registered. Each Person Who uses computers within a domain receives a unique user account that can be assigned access to resources within the domain.

6. what is Active Directory ?

Active Directory is a Microsoft technology used to manage computers and other devices on a network. It is the primary feature of Windows Server.
Active Directory allows the Network Administrator to create and manage domains, users, and objects within a network.

7. what is Workgroup ?

A workgroup is a peer to peer networking using Microsoft Software. A Workgroup allows all participating and connected systems to access shared resources such as files, system resources, and printers. Workgroups are not suggested for sensitive data, transmitting networks, nor business networks but it usually designs for small local area networks such as schools, homes, or small businesses. it is easy to install and configure.

8. What is Symantec endpoint ?

Symantec Endpoint Protection, Developed by Broadcom inc, is a security software suite that consists of anti-malware, intrusion prevention, and firewall features for server and desktop computers.

9. When Apipa remove ?

Releasing the IP address
Disabling the Ethernet Adapter
Check the Ethernet cable

10. what is MDT ( Microsoft Deployment Toolkit) ?

MDT is a computer program that permits network deployment of Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office. MDT can help build an automated installation source for deploying the windows operating system from either a single machine or a central server.MDT support three types of deployments.

  1. Zero Touch Installation ( ZTI )
  2. Lite Touch Installation ( LTI )
  3. User-Driven Installation ( UDI )
    ZTI is a fully automated deployment scheme in which installation requires no user interaction.
    UDI deployment requires full manual intervention to respond to every installation prompt, such as machine name, password, or language setting.
    LTI deployment requires limited user interaction An LTI deployment needs very little infrastructure so it can be installed from a network share or media using either a USB flash drive.

11. what is safe mode ?

Safe Mode is a special way for Windows to load when there is a system-critical problem that interfaces with the normal operation of windows.
The purpose of Safe Mode is to allow you to troubleshoot Windows and try to determine What is causing it to not function correctly. Once you have corrected the problem then you can reboot and Windows will load normally.

12. what is group policy ?

group policy is a feature of the Microsoft Windows NT family of operating systems that control the working environment of user accounts and computer accounts.
group policy provides centralized management and configuration of operating systems, applications, and users settings in Active Directory Environment. Through Group Policy we can prevent users from accessing specific resources, run scripts, and perform simple tasks.

13. what is Page file or Virtual Memory ?

A Computer can address more memory than the amount of physically installed memory. It is actually called Virtual Memory.
Virtual Memory is a memory management technique that provides an illusion to the user of a very large space. it temporarily transforming data from RAM to disk storage.

14. what is Network ?

A Computer Network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital interconnection for the purpose of sharing resources.

15. What is MDF and IDF ?

MDF stands for Main Distributed Frame. It is a wring rack that connects to the outside line with the inside line. it connects private and public lines coming to the building to the internal network.
IDF stands for intermediate Distributed Frame. It is a strategic distributive point. it connects the users to the network uplinks from MDF, Workgroup Switched, and other local resources. It is common in the medium in large organizations.

16. what is SIP and SIP Trunking ?

SIP stands for session initiation protocol is a signalling protocol used for initiating, maintaining and terminating real time sessions that include voice and messaging applications. it is an application layer protocol.
SIP trunking is the virtual version of an analogue phone line. Using SIP trunk connect one, two or twenty channels to you PBX, that allowing you to make local, long distanceand international call over the internet.

17. What is Rack in Datacenter ?

A Rack is a type of physical steel and electronic framework that is designed to house servers, networking devices, cables and other Computing Equipment.

18. What is Mux ?

In communication Transmission System, Mux is an abbreviation for multiplexing a device that sends multiple signals on a carrier channel at the same time in the form of a Single to another device that recovers the separate signals at the receiving end that is call demux.

19. What is DC ?

Each Domain Controller of set of user where for each domain there is specific Domain Controller. Who controls the information related to user. who are in the specified domain.

20. Color coding cross over cable RJ-45 ?

21. Benifits of Vlan ?

Stands for “Virtual Local Area Network,” or “Virtual LAN.” A VLAN is a custom network created from one or more existing LANs. It enables groups of devices from multiple networks (both wired and wireless) to be combined into a single logical network. Many benifits of Vlan some here :

  • Adds security to the larger Network.
  • Less hardware needed.
  • Management / Guest Network.
  • Different traffic type ( eg. Voice and Data ).
  • Apply different settings to different Vlans.
  • Limit Broadcast and flooding.
  • Smaller failure domains.

22. What is MBR ?

Stands for “Master Boot Record.” An MBR is a small section of a hard disk or other storage device that contains information about the disk. It is located in the boot sector and defines the disk partitions as well as the code used to start the boot sequence.

23. What is Man ?

A LAN is used in office buildings, schools, and rooms, a MAN is used primarily in cities, and a WAN is used over a state, province or country. Metropolitan area networks typically connect businesses to businesses and businesses to wide area networks.

24. What is Data Localisation  -  Why This Kolaveri Di?

It’s worth noting that the RBI circular pertains only to payments-related data storage, not all types of consumer data. The Indian government is separately framing a comprehensive Consumer Data Protection Act. The Justice Srikrishna committee was tasked with this exercise and presented its draft Data Protection Bill, 2018 in July 2018. the record, processes all payment transactions in India. We also store all our data on India servers only. For more info visit

25. What is access point ?

An access point is a wireless network device that act as a portal for device to connect to a local area network.Access point are used for extending the wireless coverage of an existing network and for increasing the number of users that can connect to it.

26. What is ideal temperature in Datacenter ?

  • 18 to 27 degree Celsius
  • 64.4 to 80.6 degree Fahrenheit

27. What is ideal humidity level in Datacenter ?

40% to 60 %

28. What is VOIP?

VOIP is an acronym for Voice Over Internet Protocol, or in more common terms phone service over the Internet.If you have a reasonable quality Internet connection you can get phone service delivered through your Internet connection instead of from your local phone company.Some people use VOIP in addition to their traditional phone service, since VOIP service providers usually offer lower rates than traditional phone companies, but sometimes doesn’t offer 911 service, phone directory listings, 411 service, or other common phone services. While many VoIP providers offer these services, consistent industry-wide means of offering these are still developing.

29. Whatt is OST ans PST ?


In Microsoft Outlook, Personal Storage Table (PST) stores the copies of the messages, contacts, calendars etc. on user’s system from the account configured on the Outlook. PST is an Open file format. When a user creates the account in the Outlook, a default PST file automatically created. A PST file also allows securing from the unauthorized access with the password.


Offline Storage Table (.ost file) is an offline Outlook data file which stores an offline copy of Outlook data item that exists on the server. OST file allows users to work even in the absence of the server connection. Users can edit the data, save emails in the draft, adding and deleting etcetera. Whenever the user works in the absence of server, a carbon copy of mailbox is created by MS Outlook and store locally on the users’ system.

OST and PST both are the data storage file of Outlook. The OST files save data for offline use while PST stores data in the client’s local disk. OST file can be converted to PST file format and vice versa when needed.
  1. What is server OS and client OS ?

Client Os

It is a operating system that operates with in Desktop. It is obtained services from a server. It runs client devices like laptop, desktop and very simple operating system.
Like windows, android.

Server OS

It is a operating system that Designed to be deliver provide services to multiple clients at a same time and operating system is advanced like Linux, Red Hat.

  1. What is VDI ?

VDI stands for Virtual Desktop Infrastructure. VDI is used to utilizes resources of one system and provide acess to multiple user do work at the same time.VDI hosting of desktop environment on a centralized server , a form of desktop virtualization and delivered to end user on request.

  1. What is SMPS ?

It stands for Switch Mode Power supply that converting electrical power one to another.
In computer SMPS that gives out put 3.3v for cpu and +5v for PCI slot and other also same as.

  1. What is spooler ?

A program that control jobs putting in a queue that perform one by one at a time.

34. Type of Server in Data center ?

  1. Standalone server
  2. Single blade server
  3. Chasi serve

35. Types of Data center ?

  • Enterprise Data center
  • Managed services Data center
  • Colocation Data center
  • Cloud Data center

36. Uptime of Data center ?

  • Tier-1. 99.671%. Basic 28.8 hour downtime in a year
  • Tier-2. 99.741%. Redundant Components 22 hour downtime in a year
  • Tier-3. 99.982%. Concurrently Maintaniable 1.6 hour downtime in a year
  • Tier-4. 99.995%. Fault Tolerant 0.4 hour downtime in a year
  1. Full forms

ICT – information and communication technology
CFD – Computational Fluid Dynamics
CRAC – Computer Room Air Conditioning
PAHU – Precious Air Handling Unit

  1. What is PBX ?

PBX stands for private branch exchange, which is a private network used within a company or organisation. The users of the PBX phone system can communicate internally and externally, using different communication channel like voip , ISDN or analog.

  1. What is CI ?

CI is refered as configuration item and it is used to store information about hardware and software assets.

  1. What is CMDB ?

Stands for Configuration Management Database that contains all relevant information about the hardware and software components used in an organisation it services and it also contains the relationship between those components.

  1. What is C-Lan ?

Stands for control local area network that design to be used with a range of avaya communication gateway or other compatible cabinets.
This is a card in a media gateway and is the interface that all IP station and IP Trunks register.

Also include for remeber
IPSI stands for IP server interface that directly communication with the avaya communication manager.
MEDPRO stands for media processor and it contains all the digital signal processor for converting/ compressing digital/ analog / IP voice.

  1. What is ACD ?

Stands for automatically call Distribution system that answer distribute incoming call to a specific group of terminal or agenta within an organization.

  1. What is PRI ?

Stands for Primary Rate Interface standard used on an integrated service Digital network for carrying multiple DSO voice and data transmission between the network and a user.
PRI based on T carrier Transmission and E carrier Transmission.

  1. What is T1 and E1 standards ?

T1 standard use in US, Canada, Japan. It has 24 bit channel for voice and data + it has 1 framing bit. Speed 1.544 Mbps.

E1 standard use in Europen and Australia. It has 32 bit channel. In 30 bit use for voice and data + 2 bit use for controlling. Speed 2.048 Mbps.

  1. What is IVR ?

It is a system that used by contact center to answer incoming calls or when an outbound call is answered to provide a recoded message with option and information for caller. caller can input their response via thier telephone keypad or using voice commands.

  1. What is DID ?

Direct inward dialling is a feature offered by a telephone company for use with customers PBX system, where by the telephone company allocates a range of telephone number associated with on or more phone lines. Eg: someone from outside office can call directly an extension by dialling a DID number.

  1. What is Hunt Group ?

A Hunt Group is a collection of users handling similar types a call, eg a sales department an incoming caller wishing to speak to sales can ring one number but the call can be answered by an number of extension that are members of the hunt group.

  1. What cable is required to connect a router and pc ?

Straight cable

  1. Who is in-charge of updating the incident record ?

First level Support, Support Specialist

  1. What is POE means ?

Power Over Ethernet use to give power with single Ethernet cable like wireless CCTV.

  1. What is 15-pin connector commenly used to transmit video?


  1. How is our team referred to in the 6 roles of incidents management ?

Support Specialist

  1. Check list Data Center ?

Availability, cost effectiveness, flexibility, Manageability, Security

Important point of Data center

  • Mangae Airflow
  • Adjust thermostat
  • Utilizes free cooling
  • Optimize power distribution

54. What is SAN Switch ?

San switch is a hardware which have FC ports. host and storage device are connected to stablish a connection like b/w host and storage device. Group of san switch is called Fabric. Every SAN Network has two Fabric for redundancy.
San switch manage traffic flow between the servers and storage devices, examining data packet and forwarding then to their intended destination.

55. Types of Storage In Data center ?

  • DAS ( Direct Attached Storage )
  • SAN ( Storage Area Network )
  • NAS ( Network Attached Storage )

56. Category of Ethernet Cable ?

57. Osi model ?

58. What is IDS and IPS ?

Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) analyze network traffic for signatures that match known cyberattacks.

Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) also analyzes packets, but can also stop the packet from being delivered based on what kind of attacks it detects — helping stop the attack.

59. Types of Ram ?

There are two main types of RAM: Dynamic RAM (DRAM) and Static RAM (SRAM).

DRAM (pronounced DEE-RAM), is widely used as a computer’s main memory. Each DRAM memory cell is made up of a transistor and a capacitor within an integrated circuit, and a data bit is stored in the capacitor. Since transistors always leak a small amount, the capacitors will slowly discharge, causing information stored in it to drain; hence, DRAM has to be refreshed (given a new electronic charge) every few milliseconds to retain data.

SRAM (pronounced ES-RAM) is made up of four to six transistors. It keeps data in the memory as long as power is supplied to the system unlike DRAM, which has to be refreshed periodically. As such, SRAM is faster but also more expensive, making DRAM the more prevalent memory in computer systems.

60. What is RAID ?

RAID stands for Redundancy Array of inexpensive Data. It provides to extra performance along with Redundancy and even parity.It has four types.

  1. RAID 0 – IT is stripping the data and provide performance to us. Minimum 2 hard disk.
  2. RAID 1 – IT is Mirroring the data and provide better read speed to raid 0. Minimum 2 hard disk.
  3. RAID 5 – IT is use Stripping and Mirroring the data and offer decent read performance due to stripping. And poor write performance. Minimum 3 hard disk.
  4. RAID 10 – IT has two Stack use for Stripping and Mirroring the data. It Stripping together the data. It perform best performance and redundancy. Minimum 4 hard disk.

61. What is NIC ?

Stands for Network Interface Card. It is a hardware component that use for network connection bro the computer. NIC allows both wired and wireless Communication.

62. What is usb ?

Universal Serial Bus is an industry standard that use for connection, communication and power supply between Computer, Peripheral s and other Computer. When a device is attached to the USB system, it assigned a number that is called address. The address is uniquely used by that device while it connected it and unlike the traditional system, this number is likely to be different to the address give to that device the last time it was used.

63. What is Zscaler ?

Zscaler internet access enables organization to up- level security without the cost and complexity of appliances. By moving the security stack to the cloud, Zclar protect all user with policy – based access and inline protection from malware and other threats.

64. What DVI ?

Stands for Digital Visual interface. It used to connect video source such as video display controller to display a device like display monitor.

65. Basic need for Dual Desktop Configuration setup ?

We need display video card for dual desktop configuration there has 2 VGA port available that help for setup dual desktop configuration and we also need to install drivers that comes with display video card.

66. What is SSO ?

Single Sign-in is an authentication method that enables users to securely authenticate with multiple applications and website by using just one set of credentials.

67. What is DS1 ?

Digital Signal card that make connections for E1/T1 Carrier Channel.

68. What is VPN ?

Stands for Virtual Private Network. It encrypt the data and provide a secure way to communicate over a public network. If any data capture that may not be easily readable as public network capture data.
It use many types of protocol to securely transfer data some are IPsec, PPTP, SSH, SSL and TLS, Open Vpn etc.

69. What is firewall ?

Firewall is a network security system that monitor and control incoming and outgoing network traffic based on security rules.

70. What is Data Center ?

Data Center is a building or a Dedicated space for houses the Computer system and associated components such as tele communication and storage system.

71. What is FC card ?

Stands for fiber channel Card that connect server to storage or network devices.

72. What is CMDB ?

A configuration management database is an ITIL database used by an organization to store information about hardware and software assets.


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